References

Articles are listed chronologically.

Lee, E., Song, M. S., Shin. J.Y., Lee, Y. M., Kim, C. J., Lee, Y. S., Kim, H. & Choi, Y.K. (2007)
Genetic characterization of avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolated from pheasants in a live bird market
Virus Research,128, 18-25.

Tarpey, I., Huggins, M.B. & Orbell, S. J.  (2007)
The efficacy of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine applied simultaneously with infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus vaccines to specific-pathogen-free chickens.
Avian Diseases, 51, 594-596.

Tarpey, I. & Huggins, M.B. (2007)
Onset of immunity following in ovo delivery of avian metapneumovirus vaccines.
Veterinary Microbiology, 124, 134-139.

Toquin D, Guionie O, Jestin V, Zwingelstein F, Allee C & Eterradossi N. (2006)
European and American Subgroup C Isolates of Avian Metapneumovirus belong to Different Genetic Lineages.
Virus Genes, 32, 97-103.

Banet-Noach, C., Simanov, L. & Perk, S. (2005)
Characterization of Israeli avian metapneumovirus strains in turkeys and chickens.
Avian Pathology, 34, 220-226.

D’Arce, R.C.F., Coswig, L.T., Almeida, R.S., Trevisol, I.M., Monteiro, M.C.B., Rossini, L.I., Di Fabio, J., Hafez, M.H. & Arns, C.W. (2005)
Subtyping of new Brazilian avian Metapneumovirus isolates from chickens and turkeys by reverse transcriptase-nested-polymerase chain reaction.
Avian Pathology, 34, 133-136.

Jones, R. (2005)
History of detection of turkey rhinotracheitis, diagnosis and current techniques.
Proceedings of the 28th Technical Turkey Conference, Cheshire, England 20-22 April 2005.

Marien, M., Decostere, A., Martel, A., Chiers, K, Froyman, R. & Nauwynck H. (2005)
Synergy between Avian Pneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys
Avian Pathology, 34, 204-211.

Nagaraja, K.V.(2005)
The US experience with TRT.
Proceedings of the 28th Technical Turkey Conference Cheshire, England 20-22 April 2005.

Naylor, C., Jones, R., Cavanagh, D., Easton, A. & Catelli, H. (2005)
The future, new serotypes, new methods of diagnosis, and other methods of control.
Proceedings of the 28th Technical Turkey Conference, Cheshire, England 20-22 April 2005.

Patnayak, D.P., Tiwari, A. & Goyal M. (2005)
Growth of vaccine strains of avian Pneumovirus in different cell lines.
Avian Pathology, 34(2), 123-126.

Bennett, R.S., Nezworski, B.T., Velayudhan, K.V., Nagaraja, K.V., Zeman, D.H., Dyer, N., Graham, T., Lauer, D.C., Njenga, M.K. & Halvorson, D.A. (2004)
Evidence of Avian Pneumovirus Infection spread beyond Minnesota among wild and domestic birds in central North America
Avian Diseases, 48, 902-908.

Hess, M., Huggins, M. B. & Heincz, U. (2004)
Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine.
Avian Pathology, 33, 576-580.

Hess, M., Huggins, M.B., Mudzamiri, R. & Heincz U. (2004)
Avian Metapneumovirus excretion in vaccinated and non vaccinated specific pathogen free laying chickens.
Avian Pathology, 33 (1), 35-40.

Jirjis, F.F., Noll, S.L., Halvorson, D.A., Nagaraja, K.V., Martin F. & Shaw, D.P. (2004)
Effects of Bacterial Coinfection on the Pathogenesis of Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Turkeys
Avian Diseases, 48, 34-49.

Kapczynski, D. R. & Sellers, H. S. (2003)
Immunisation of turkeys with a DNA vaccine expressing either the F or N gene of avian metapneumovirus.
Avian Diseases, 47,1376-1383.

Mase, M., Yamaguchi, S, Tsukamoto, K, Imada T, Imai, K. & Nakamura K. (2003)
Presence of Avian Pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan
Avian Diseases, 47, 481-484.

Turpin EA, Lauer DC, Swayne DE. (2003)
Development and evaluation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian metapneumovirus type C-specific antibodies in multiple domestic avian species.
Clinical Microbiology, 41, 3579-3583.

Alkahalaf, A.N., Halvorson, D.A. & Saif, Y.M. (2002)
Comparison of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays and virus neutralization test for detection of antibodies to Avian Pneumovirus
Avian Diseases, 46, 700-703.

Bennett, R.S., McComb, B., Shin, H.J., Njenga, M.K., Nagaraja, K.V. & Halvorson, D.A. (2002)
Detection of Avian Pneumovirus in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and Blue-winged teal (Anas discors)
Avian Diseases, 4,: 1025-1029.

Chary, P., Rautenschlein, S., Njenga, M.K. & Sharma, J.M. (2002)
Pathogenic and immunosuppressive effects of Avian Pneumovirus in turkeys
Avian Diseases, 46, 153-161.

Jirjis FF, Noll SL, Halvorson DA, Nagaraja KV & Shaw DP. (2002)
Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.
Veterinary Pathology, 39, 300-310.

Cook, J.K.A. & Cavanagh, D. (2002)
Detection and differentiation of avian Pneumoviruses (metapneumovirus)
Avian Pathology, 31, 117-132.

Cook, J. K. A., Huggins, M. B., Orbell, S. J., Mawditt, K. & Cavanagh, D.
(2001)

Infectious bronchitis virus vaccine interferes with the replication of avian pneumovirus vaccine in domestic fowl.
Avian Pathology, 30, 233-242.

Tarpey, I., Huggins, M. B., Davis, P. J., Shilleto, R., Orbell, S.J. & Cook, J. K. A. (2001)
Cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the avian pneumovirus (Colorado isolate) F protein.
Avian Pathology, 30, 471-474.

Cook, J. K. A. (2000)
Avian pneumovirus infections in turkeys and chickens. A Review.
The Veterinary Journal, 160, 118-125.

Cook, J.K.A., Chesher, J., Orthel, F., Woods, M.A., Orbell, S.J., Baxendale, W. & Huggins, M.B. (2000)
Avian pneumovirus infection of laying hens: experimental studies.
Avian Pathology, 29, 545-556.

Cook, J.K.A., Huggins, M.B., Orbell, S.J. & Senne D.A. (1999)
Preliminary antigenic characterization of an avian Pneumovirus isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado, USA
Avian Pathology, 28, 607-617.

Catelli, E., Cook, J.K.A., Chesher, J., Orbell. S.J., Woods, M.A., Baxendale, W. & Huggins, M.B. (1998)
The use of virus isolation, histopathology and immunoperoxidase techniques to study the dissemination of a chicken isolate of avian pneumovirus in chickens.
Avian Pathology, 27, 632-640.

Cook, J.K.A., Huggins, M.B. & Senne D.A. (1998).
Turkey Rhinotracheitis – relationship of different virus subgroups.
Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Turkey Diseases, Berlin. (H. M. Hafez, ed) pp 89-93.

Mekkes, D.R. & de Witt, J.J. (1998)
Comparison of three commercial ELISA kits for the detection of turkey rhinotracheitsis virus antibodies
Avian Pathology 27: 301-305.

Naylor, C., Shaw, P., Britton, P. & Cavanagh, D. (1997)
Appearance of type B avian Pneumovirus in Great Britain
Avian Pathology, 26, 327-338.

Cook, J. K. A., Orthel, F., Orbell, S. J., Woods, M.A. & Huggins, M. B.
(1996)

An experimental turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) infection in breeding turkeys and the prevention of its clinical effects using live-attenuated and inactivated TRT vaccines.
Avian Pathology, 25, 231-243.

Cook, J.K.A., Huggins, M.B., Woods, M.A., Orbell, S.J. & Mockett A.P.A.
(1995)

Protection provided by a commercially available vaccine against different strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus.
Veterinary Record 136, 392-393.

Majó, N., Allan, G.M., O’Loan, C.J., Pagès, A. & Ramis, A. J. (1995)
A sequential histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of chickens, turkey poults and broiler breeders experimentally infected with turkey rhinotracheitis virus.
Avian Diseases, 39, 887-896.

Qingzhong, Y., Barrett, T., Brown, T. D. K., Cook, J. K. A., Green, P., Skinner, M. A. & Cavanagh, D. (1994)
Protection against turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus (TRTV) induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the TRTV fusion glycoprotein (F).
Vaccine, 12, 569-573.

Cook, J.K.A., Jones, B., Ellis, M.M., Jing, L. & Cavanagh D. (1993)
Antigenic differentiation of strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus using monoclonal antibodies
Avian Pathology, 22, 257-273.

Cook, J.K.A., Kinloch, S. & Ellis, M.M. (1993)
In vitro and in vivo studies in chickens and turkeys on strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from two species
Avian Pathology, 22, 157-170.

Cook, J.K.A., Ellis, M.M. and Huggins, M.B. (1991)
The pathogenesis of turkey rhinotracheitis virus in turkey poults inoculated with the virus alone or together with two strains of bacteria.
Avian Pathology, 20, 155-166.

layer chickens

 

turkeys