The technical information on this web site was reviewed by Dr J. Cook and Dr. Q. Yu. We thank them for their support.

Dr. Jane Cook


BSc (Microbiology) and PhD University of Bristol
Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists (FRCPath)


Dr. Cook was involved for many years in the study of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of avian viral diseases, particularly avian infectious bronchitis (IBV), avian adenoviruses (including EDS-76) and avian pneumovirus (APV). She was involved in the research and development of avian vaccines until retirement in 2000. Since retirement she remains involved in the avian disease field as a consultant to different organisations, giving talks, and writing book chapters and review articles. Amongst other activities she is also an editor of the journal Avian Pathology.

Selected publications:

McDougall, J.S. & Cook, J.K.A. (1986)
Turkey rhinotracheitis: preliminary investigations. Veterinary Record, 118, 206-207.

Cook, J.K.A. & Ellis, M.M. (1990)
Attenuation of turkey rhinotracheitis virus by alternative passage in embryonated chicken eggs and tracheal organ cultures. Avian Pathology, 19, 181-185.

Cook, J.K.A., Ellis, M.M. & Huggins, M.B. (1991)
The pathogenesis of turkey rhinotracheitis virus in turkey poults inoculated with the virus alone or together with two strains of bacteria. Avian Pathology, 20, 155-166.

Cook, J.K.A., Kinloch, S. & Ellis, M.M. (1993)
In vitro
 and in vivo studies in chickens and turkeys on strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from the two species.  Avian Pathology, 22,157-170.

Cook, J.K.A., Jones, B.V., Ellis, M.M., Li Jing. & Cavanagh, D. (1993)
Antigenic differentiation of strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Avian Pathology, 22, 257-273.

Cook, J.K.A., Huggins, M.B., Woods, M.A., Orbell, S.J. & Mockett, A.P. A. (1995)
Protection provided by a commercially available vaccine against different strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Veterinary Record, 136, 392-393.

Cook, J.K.A., Orthel, F., Orbell, S., Woods, M.A. & Huggins, M.B. (1996)
An experimental turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) infection in breeding turkeys and the prevention of its clinical effects using live-attenuated and inactivated TRT vaccines. Avian Pathology, 25, 231-243.

Cook, J.K.A., Huggins, M.B., Orbell, S.J. & Senne, D. A. (1999)
Preliminary antigenic characterization of an avian pneumovirus isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado, USA. Avian Pathology, 28, 607-617.

Cook, J. K. A., Chesher, J., Orthel, F., Woods, M. A., Orbell, S. J., Baxendale, W. & Huggins, M. B. (2000)
Avian pneumovirus infection of laying hens: experimental studies. Avian Pathology, 29, 545-556.


Dr. Qingzhong Yu


D.V.M.           Shenyang Agricultural University, China
MSc.              Northeast Agricultural University, China
Ph.D.              University of Cambridge, UK


Dr. Yu is a molecular and veterinary virologist. His research interests focus on molecular biology, reverse genetics, and development of recombinant vaccines for avian paramyxoviruses, primarily avian metapneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus.

Selected Publications

Yu, Q., Davis, P.J., Barrett, T., Binns, M.M., Boursnell, M.E.G. and Cavanagh, D. (1991)
Deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion (F) glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses. Journal of General Virology, 72:75-81.

Yu, Q., Davis, P.J., Li, J. and Cavanagh, D. (1992)
Cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (M) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology 186:426-434.

Yu, Q., Davis, P.J., Brown, T.D.K and Cavanagh, D. (1992)
Sequence and in vitro expression of the M2 gene of turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus. Journal of General Virology, 73:1355-1363.

Qingzhong, Y., Barrett, T, Brown, T.D.K., Cook, J.K., Green, P., Skinner, M. and Cavanagh, D. (1994)
Protection against turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus (TRTV) induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the TRTV fusion glycoprotein (F). Vaccine, 12(6):569-573.

Yu, Q., Hardy, R. and Wertz, G. W. (1995)
Functional cDNA clones of the human respiratory syncytial (RS) virus N, P, and L proteins support replication of RS virus genomic RNA analogs and define minimal trans-acting requirements for RNA replication. Journal of Virology, 69:2412-2419.

Ling, R., Davis, P., Yu, Q., Wood, C. M., Pringle, C. R., Cavanagh, D. and Easton, A. (1995)
Sequence and in vitro expression of the phosphoprotein gene of avian pneumovirus. Virus Research, 36:247-257.

Elliott, M., Pryharski, K., Yu, Q., Parks, C., Laughlin, T., Gupta, C., Lerch, R., Randolph, V., LaPierre, N., Heers Dack, K., and Hancock, G. (2004)
Recombinant respiratory syncytial viruses lacking the C-terminal third of the attachment (G) protein are immunogenic and attenuated in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Virology, 78:5773-5783.

Lwamba, H. C., Alvarez, R., Wise, M. G., Yu, Q., Halvorson, D., Njenga, M. K. and Seal, B. S. (2004)
Comparison of the full-length genome sequence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C with other paramyxoviruses including highly virulent Newcastle disease viruses. Virus Research, 107:83-92.

Bennett, R. S., LaRue, R., Shaw, D., Yu, Q., Nagaraja, K. V., Halvorson, D. A. and Njenga, M. K. (2005)
A wild goose avian metapneumovirus containing a large attachment glycoprotein is avirulent but immunoprotective to domestic turkeys. Journal of Virology, 79(23):14834-42.

Yu, Q., Estevez, C. N. and Kapczynski, D. R. (2006)
Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies produced against avian metapneumovirus subtype C which react to the nucleocapsid protein. Avian Diseases, 50(3):419-424.

Estevez, C. N., King, D. J., Seal, B. and Yu, Q. (2007)
Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus chimeras expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of velogenic strains in the context of a mesogenic recombinant virus backbone. Virus Research, 129:182-190.

Velayudhan, B. T., Yu, Q., Nagaraja, K. V., Estevez, C. N., and Halvorson, D. A. (2008)
Glycoprotein gene truncation in avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolates from the United States. Virus Genes, 37(2):266-72.

Miller, P. J., Estevez, C. N., Yu, Q., Suarez, D. L. and King, D. J. (2009)
Comparison of viral shedding following vaccination with inactivated and live Newcastle disease vaccines formulated with wild-type and recombinant viruses. Avian Diseases, 53:39-49.

Yu, Q., Estevez, C. N., Song, M., Kapczynski, D. R. and Zsak, L. (2010)
Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene. Virus Research, 147:182–188.

Estevez, C. N, King, D.J., Luo, M., and Yu, Q. (2011)
A Single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus results in increased fusion promotion and decreased neuraminidase activities without changes in virus pathotype. Journal of General Virology, 92:544-551.

Weng, Y., Lu, W., Harmon, A., Xiang, X., Deng, Q., Song, M., Wang, D., Yu, Q., and Li, F. (2011)
The cellular ESCRT pathway is not involved in avian metapneumovirus budding in a virus-like-particle expression system. Journal of General Virology, 92: 1205-13.

Yu, Q., Estevez, C.N., Roth, J.P., Hu, H., and Zsak, L. (2011)
Deletion of the M2-2 gene from avian metapneumovirus subgroup C impairs virus replication and immunogenicity in turkeys. Virus Genes, 42:339–346.

Deng, Q., Weng, Y., Lu, W., Demers, A., Song, M., Wang, D., Yu, Q., and Li, F. (2011)
Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus. Virus Research, 160:102-107.

Hu, H., Roth, J., Estevez, C. N., Zsak, L., Liu, B., and Yu, Q. (2011)
Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys. Vaccine, 29(47):8624-33.

Deng, Q., Song, M., Demers, A., Weng, Y., Lu, W., Wang, D., Kaushik, R. S., Yu, Q. & Li, F. (2012)
Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus. Virus Research, 167, 297-301.

Hu, H., Zhao, W., and Yu, Q. (2012)
Avian metapneumovirus molecular biology and development of genetically engineered vaccines. China Poultry, 34(12):1-5.


Dr J Cook
Dr Jane Cook
Dr Yu
Dr. Qingzhong Yu